Now that PCB is used more and more widely, the field of use is gradually expanding, and the design and implementation of effective PCB static control program is still based on the following four concepts:
1. Design PCB electrostatic protection into components and products.
2. Eliminate the materials and processes that generate PCB static electricity.
3. Disperse or neutralize PCB electrostatic discharge.
4. Provide physical protection against PCB electrostatic discharge.
1. Design components, assembly and products to make it more reasonable to avoid the effect of electrostatic discharge on single-sided circuit boards. Use components that are not sensitive to PCB static electricity, or use PCB electrostatic discharge sensitive (ESDS, ESD-sensitive) components for proper input protection. Usually more sensitive to ESD. However, the more ESD control is established in the product design, the fewer problems will occur afterwards.
2. Reduce or eliminate many PCB static electricity generating materials or processes as much as possible from the working environment. Because ESD does not occur between materials that maintain the same potential or zero potential, the processes or materials in the working environment should be maintained at the same PCB electrostatic potential. Generally, these dissipating materials or conductive materials should be electrically connected to the same common ground, such as an electrical ground wire. In addition, provide a ground wire to the PCB electrostatic wristband, the floor or the surface of the workbench to safely reduce the generation and accumulation of discharge.
3. Safely dissipate or neutralize the PCB electrostatic discharge that will occur. Properly conductive and grounded or dispersible materials play a major role. PCB static electricity is transmitted to the ground, instead of discharging sensitive components. Normally, ions are used to neutralize the discharge on these insulating materials. The process of ion action produces positive and negative ions, which are attracted to the surface of the discharge object, thus effectively neutralizing the electrostatic discharge of the PCB.
4. Prevent PCB electrostatic discharge from contacting assembly and sensitive components.
(1) Provide proper grounding or shunting of components and assemblies to disperse any discharge from the product.
(2) Transport sensitive elements and packaging in appropriate packaging materials. These materials can effectively shield the product from PCB static electricity and reduce any product movement in the package.
Measurement is the most reliable method. You identify and quantify those areas that really need PCB electrostatic protection, allowing you to focus on those areas of greatest concern. You can also confirm those areas that will not produce ESD hazards, saving you the cost of unnecessary protection.
5. Become the basis of an effective PCB static control program. They can help select appropriate materials and procedures to effectively control ESD. In most cases, effective procedures will involve all these concepts. In the development control program, confirm those sensitive components, sensitive levels, and those operations that have ESD hazards to them. Then see which concept will protect these components. Finally, implement and select a combination of procedures and materials that can accomplish this task.
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