Technical measures to improve the reliability of PCB equipment: scheme selection, circuit design, circuit board design, structural design, component selection, production process, etc. The specific measures are as follows:
(1) Simplified scheme design.
When designing the scheme, on the premise of ensuring that the equipment meets the technical and performance indicators, the design should be simplified as much as possible, and the circuit and structural design should be simplified to make each component the simplest design. The popular modular design method in the world today is an effective measure to improve equipment reliability. The block function is relatively single, and the system is composed of modules, which can reduce the complexity of the design and standardize and standardize the design. A large number of facts at home and abroad have proved this, and the product design should adopt a modular design method.
(2) Using modules and standard components.
Modules and standard components are proven products with high reliability after extensive testing and use, which can fully eliminate equipment defects and hidden dangers, and facilitate replacement and repair after problems occur. The use of modules and standardized products can not only effectively improve the reliability of the equipment, but also greatly shorten the development cycle, providing extremely favorable conditions for the rapid modification and installation of the equipment.
(3) Improve integration.
Various large-scale and ultra-large-scale integrated circuits with strong functions and high integration are selected to minimize the number of components. The fewer components there are, the less potential there are for hidden dangers. In this way, not only can the reliability of the equipment be improved, but also it can shorten the research and development cycle.
(4) Derating design.
The derating design means that the components work under the condition of lower than their rated stress, which is an effective method to reduce the failure rate of components. The temperature characteristics and electrical characteristics parameters are all derated to reduce the failure rate of components under various stress conditions.
In the derating design, the factors to be considered by different components are different: some are voltage range, some are current size, some are temperature, some are frequency, some are vibration and so on. In general, the withstand voltage, frequency and temperature characteristics of capacitors, the power of resistors, the current and frequency characteristics of inductors, the junction current, junction temperature or the fan-out coefficient, the power switch and the voltage/current and temperature resistance of the main power supply cable, the frequency characteristics of the signal cable, and the use of radiators, connectors, module power supplies and other devices require derating design.
(5) Select high-quality devices.
Components are the basic components of equipment, and their quality will directly affect the reliability of equipment. Military communication equipment should use industrial grade or above products as much as possible, preferably military products, and strictly conduct aging screening before putting on the machine to eliminate early failure devices.
(6) Make full use of software resources.
Due to the flexibility of software programming, software resources should be fully utilized in the design. At present, there are relatively many debugging methods and tools for software, and it is easy to locate faults and design problems, and the solution cycle is relatively short. Making full use of software resources is an important method to improve reliability.
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