When testing PCB boards, we should pay attention to some details in order to be more prepared to ensure product quality. There are nine tips.
1.It is strictly forbidden to use grounded test equipment to touch the live TV, audio, video and other equipment of the bottom plate to test the PCB board without an isolation transformer.
It is strictly forbidden to directly test TV, audio, video and other equipment without a power isolation transformer with instruments and equipment with grounded enclosures. Although the general radio cassette recorder has a power transformer, when it comes into contact with more special TV or audio equipment, especially the output power or the nature of the power supply used, you must first find out whether the chassis of the machine is charged, otherwise it will be very easy to cause a short circuit of the power supply of TV, audio and other equipment that are charged with the backplane, which affects the integrated circuit, causing further expansion of the fault.
2. Pay attention to the insulation performance of the soldering iron when testing the PCB board.
It is not allowed to use a soldering iron for soldering with power. Make sure that the soldering iron is not charged. It is best to ground the shell of the soldering iron. Be more careful with the MOS circuit. It is safer to use a low voltage circuit iron of 6~8V.
3. Before testing the PCB board, understand the working principle of integrated circuits and related circuits.
Before testing and repairing the integrated circuit, you must be familiar with the function of the integrated circuit used, the internal circuit, the main electrical parameters, the role of each pin, and the normal voltage of the pin, the waveform and the working principle of the circuit composed of peripheral components. If the above conditions are met, analysis and testing will be much easier.
4. Do not cause short circuits between pins when testing PCB board.
When measuring voltage or testing the waveform with an oscilloscope probe, do not cause a short circuit between the pins of the integrated circuit due to sliding of the test leads or probes. It is best to measure on the peripheral printed circuit directly connected to the pins. Any momentary short circuit can easily damage the integrated circuit. You must be more careful when testing flat-package CMOS integrated circuits.
5. The internal resistance of the PCB board test instrument should be large.
When measuring the DC voltage of the IC pins, a multimeter with the internal resistance of the meter head greater than 20KΩ/V should be used, otherwise there will be a large measurement error for the voltage of some pins.
6. Pay attention to the heat dissipation of the power integrated circuit when testing the PCB board.
The power integrated circuit should have good heat dissipation, and it is not allowed to work in a high-power state without a heat sink.
7. The lead wire of the PCB board should be tested reasonably.
If you need to add external components to replace the damaged parts of the integrated circuit, small components should be selected, and the wiring should be reasonable to avoid unnecessary parasitic coupling, especially the grounding between the audio power amplifier integrated circuit and the preamplifier circuit end.
8. Ensure the welding quality.
When soldering, the solder is firm, and the accumulation of solder and pores are likely to cause false soldering. The soldering time is generally no more than 3 seconds, and the power of the soldering iron should be about 25W with internal heating. The integrated circuit that has been soldered should be carefully checked. It is best to use an ohmmeter to measure whether there is a short circuit between the pins, confirm that there is no solder adhesion, and then turn on the power.
9. Do not judge the damage of the integrated circuit easily.
Do not judge that the integrated circuit is damaged easily. Because most integrated circuits are directly coupled, once a circuit is abnormal, it may cause multiple voltage changes. These changes are not necessarily caused by the damage of the integrated circuit. In addition, in some cases, the measured voltage of each pin is different from the normal voltage. When the values match or are close, it does not always mean that the integrated circuit is good. Because some soft faults will not cause changes in DC voltage.
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