B. Thermal Design
From the perspective of conducive to heat dissipation, the printed plate is best installed upright, the distance between two board and he should not be less than 2cm, and the arrangement of the devices on the printed plate should follow certain rules.
●For equipment that uses free convection air cooling, it is best to arrange integrated circuits (or other devices) in a longitudinal manner. For equipment that uses forced air cooling, it is best to use integrated circuits (or other devices). ). Arranged horizontally.
●The devices on the same printed board should be arranged as far as possible according to their calorific value and degree of heat dissipation. Devices with small calorific value or poor heat resistance (such as small signal transistors, small-scale integrated circuits, electrolytic capacitors, etc.) should be cooled the uppermost flow (at the entrance) of the airflow, and the devices with large heat generation or good heat resistance (such as power transistors, large-scale integrated circuits, etc.) are placed at the most downstream of the cooling airflow.
●In the horizontal direction, high-power devices are arranged as close as possible to the edge of the printed board to shorten the heat transfer path. In the vertical direction, high-power devices are arranged as close as possible to the top of the printed board to reduce the temperature of other devices when these devices work. Influence.
●The temperature-sensitive device is best placed in the lowest temperature area (such as the bottom of the device). Never place it directly above the heating device. It is best to stagger multiple devices on the horizontal plane.
●The heat dissipation of the printed board in the equipment mainly relies on air flow, so the air flow path should be studied during the design, and the device or printed circuit board should be reasonably configured. When air flows, it always tends to flow in places with low resistance, so when configuring devices on a printed circuit board, avoid leaving a large airspace in a certain area. The configuration of multiple printed circuit boards in the whole machine should also pay attention to the same problem.
C. Electromagnetic Compatibility Design
Electromagnetic compatibility refers to the ability of electronic equipment to work in a coordinated and effective manner in various electromagnetic environments. The purpose of electromagnetic compatibility design is to enable electronic equipment to suppress all kinds of external interference, so that the electronic equipment can work normally in a specific electromagnetic environment, and at the same time to reduce the electromagnetic interference of the electronic equipment to other electronic equipment.
1. Choose A Reasonable Wire Width
Since the impact interference generated by the transient current on the printed lines is mainly caused by the inductance of the printed wires, the inductance of the printed wires should be minimized. The inductance of the printed wire is proportional to its length and inversely proportional to its width, so short and precise wires are beneficial to suppress interference. The signal lines of clock leads, row drivers or bus drivers often carry large transient currents, and the printed wires should be as short as possible. For discrete component circuits, when the printed wire width is about 1.5mm, it can fully meet the requirements. For integrated circuits, the printed wire width can be selected between 0.2~1.0mm.
2. Adopt Correct Wiring Strategy
The use of equal routing can reduce the wire inductance, but the mutual inductance and distributed capacitance between the wires increase. If the layout permits, it is best to use a grid-shaped wiring structure. The specific method is to wire one side of the printed board horizontally and the other side of the printed board. Then connect with metallized holes at the cross holes.
In order to suppress the crosstalk between the conductors of the printed circuit board, when designing the wiring, you should try to avoid long-distance equal wiring, extend the distance between the wires as much as possible, and try not to cross the signal wires with the ground wires and the power wires. Setting a grounded printed line between some signal lines that are very sensitive to interference can effectively suppress crosstalk.
3. Suppress reflection interference
In order to suppress the reflection interference that appears at the terminal of the printed line, in addition to special needs, the length of the printed line should be shortened as much as possible and a slow circuit should be used. Terminal matching can be added when necessary, that is, a matching resistor of the same resistance is added to the end of the transmission line to the ground and the power terminal. According to experience, for general faster TTL circuits, terminal matching measures should be adopted when the printed lines are longer than 10cm. The resistance of the matching resistor should be determined according to the maximum value of the output drive current and absorption current of the integrated circuit.
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