1. Open the PCB design drawing on the computer, light up the short-circuited network, and see where is the closest, the easiest to connect to. Pay special attention to the short circuit inside the IC.
2. If it is manual welding, develop the following good habits.
2.1 Before soldering, check the PCB board visually, and use a multimeter to check whether the key circuits (especially the power supply and the ground) are short-circuited.
2.2 Every time a chip is soldered, use a multimeter to check whether the power supply and ground are short-circuited.
2.3 Don’t throw the soldering iron randomly when soldering. If you throw the solder onto the solder feet of the chip (especially surface mount components), it will not be easy to find.
3. Short circuit is found. Take a board to cut the line (especially suitable for single/double-layer boards), and then power on each part of the functional block separately and gradually eliminate it.
4. Use short-circuit location analysis instrument.
5. If there is a BGA chip, since all solder joints are covered by the chip and cannot be seen, and it is a multi-layer board (above 4 layers), it is best to separate the power supply of each chip during the design, using magnetic beads or 0 ohms resistor connection, so that when there is a short circuit between the power supply and the ground, the magnetic bead detection is disconnected, and it is easy to locate a certain chip. Because the welding of BGA is difficult, if it is not automatic welding by the machine, a little carelessness will short-circuit the two solder balls of the adjacent power supply and the ground.
6. Be careful when soldering small-size surface-mount capacitors, especially power supply filter capacitors (103 or 104), which can easily cause a short circuit between the power supply and the ground. Of course, sometimes with bad luck, the capacitor is short-circuited, so the best way is to test the capacitor before welding.
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